Stephen Arnold

  • University Professor

  • Thomas Potts Professor of Applied Physics


Stephen Arnold
Research Interests
Microparticle Photophysics Whispering Gallery Mode Biosensing Organic Molecular Crystals

City University of New York, 1970
Doctor of Philosophy, Physics

University of Toledo, 1964
Bachelor of Science, Engineering Physics

Indian Institute of Technology Madras
Visiting Faculty Fellow in Physics
Invited to lecture on and do collaborative research in MicroParticle PhotoPhysics
From: June 22, 2022 to August 23, 2022

California Institute of Technology
Visiting Associate
Invited to do collaborative research in Bioengineering
From: June 2014 to September 2014

Visiting Scholar
From: January 2013 to May 2013

Ecole Normale Superieure, Paris 20
From: March 1972 to September 1973

California Institute of Technology
Chevron Distinguished Visiting Professor
From: February 1985 to May 1985

The Aerospace Corp.
Member of Technical Staff
From: February 1990 to May 1990

University of Tokyo
Visiting Scholar
From: February 1997 to May 1997

Polytechnic Institute of NYU
Director, Othmer Institute for Interdisciplinary Research
From: July 2003 to July 2005

Journal Articles



  • JR Lopez, E. Treasurer, KM Snyder, D. Keng, S. Arnold. "Whispering gallery mode coulometry of the nanoparticle-microcavity interaction  in aqueous solution", Appl. Phys. Lett. 112, 051109(2018).
  • MR Foreman, D. Keng, E. Treasurer, J. Lopez, S. Arnold. "Whispering gallery mode single nano-particle detection and sizing: the validity of the dipole approximation", Optics Letters 42, 963-966 (2017).
  • S. Arnold, D. Keng, E. treasurer, MR Forman. "How Latitude Location on a Micro-World Enables Real-Time Nanoparticle Sizing", in Nano-Optics: Principles  Enabling Basic Research and Aplications (Springer, Dordrecht), p.235-245 (2017).
  • D. Keng, X. Tan, S. Arnold,"Whispering gallery micro-global positioning system for nanoparticle sizing in real time", Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 071105 (2014).
  • V.R. Dantham, S. Holler, C. Barbre, D. Keng, V. Kolchenko, S. Arnold,"Label-free Dectection of Single Protein using  a Nanoplasmonic-Photonic Hybrid Microcavity", Nano Lett. 13, 3347-3351 (2013).
  • I.W. Selesnick, S. Arnold, V.R. Dantham, "Polynomial Smoothing of Time Series with Additive Step Discontinuities", IEEE Trans. Signal Pross. 60, 6305-6318(2012).
  • S. Arnold, V.R. Dantham, C. Barbre, B.A. Garetz, "Periodic palsmonic enhancing epitopes on a whisperiong gallery mode biosensor", Opt. Express 20, 26147-26159(2012).
  • V.R. Dantham, S. Holler, Z. Wan, V. Kolchenko, S. Arnold, "Taking Whispering Gallery Mode Single Virus Detection and Sizing to the Limit" , Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 043704(2012).
  • David Ehre, Ke Fang, Janice E. Aber, Stephen Arnold,Michael D. Ward, and Bruce A. Garetz, "Polymorphism in Containerless Crystallization", Cryst. Growth Des. DOI: 10.1021/cg200824h
  • S. I. Shopova, R. Rajmangal, S. Holler, S. Arnold, "Plasmonic Enhancement of a Whispering Gallery Mode Biosenor for Single Nanoparticle Detection", Applied Physics Letters 98, 243104(2011).
  • S. I. Shopova, R. Rajmangal, Y. Nishida, S. Arnold“Ultra-sensitive Nanoparticle Detection using a Portable Whispering Gallery Mode Biosensor driven by a PPLN doubled DFB laser”, Rev. Scientific Instruments 81, 103110 (2010).
  • Y. Sun, S.I. Shopova, C.S. Wu, S. Arnold, X. Fan, “Optofluidic FRET lasers via DNA scaffolds”, Proc. National Academy of Sciences 107, 15039-16042(2010).
  • S. Arnold, S.I. Shopova, and S. Holler, "Whispering Gallery Mode Bio-sensor for label-free detection of single molecules: thermo-optic vs. reactive mechanism, Optics Express 18, 281-287(2010). 
  •  I. Teraoka, and S. Arnold, "Resonance shifts of counter-propagating whispering-gallery modes: degenerate perturbation theory and application to resonator sensors with axial symmetry nanoparticle detection in biosensing", J. Opt. Soc. Am. B, 26, 1321 -1329 (2009).
  • S. Arnold, D. Keng, S. I. Shopova, S. Holler, W. Zurawsky, and F. Vollmer,
"Whispering gallery mode carousel – a photonic mechanism for enhanced nanoparticle detection in biosensing", Opt. Express, 17, 6230-6238 (2009).
  • F. Vollmer, S. Arnold, and D. Keng, “Single virus detection from the reactive shift of a whispering-gallery mode”,
       Proc. National Academy of Sciences, 105, 20701-20704 (2008).
  • I. Teraoka and S. Arnold, “Variational principle in whispering gallery mode sensor responses”, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B, 25, 1038 -1045 (2008).
  • F. Vollmer and S. Arnold, "Whispering-gallery-mode biosensing: label-free detection down to single molecules", Nature Methods, 5, 591-596 (2008).
  • S. Arnold, R. Ramjit, D. Keng, V. Kolchenko and I. Teraoka, “MicroParticle photophysics illuminates viral bio-sensing”,
 FARADAY DISCUSSIONS 137, 65-83 (2008).
  • I. Teraoka and S. Arnold, “Estimation of surface density of molecules adsorbed on a whispering gallery mode resonator: Utility of isotropic polarizability”, J. of Appl. Phys. 102, 076109 (2007).
  • H. Ren, F. Vollmer, S. Arnold and A. Libchaber, “High-Q microsphere biosensor - analysis for adsorption of rodlike bacteria”,
 Opt. Express 15, 17410 (2007).
  • D. Keng, S. R. McAnanama, I. Teraoka, and S. Arnold, “Resonance fluctuations of a whispering gallery mode biosensor by particles undergoing Brownian motion”,  Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 103902 (2007).
  • M. Noto, D. Keng, I. Teraoka, and S. Arnold, “Detection of Protein Orientation on the Silica Microsphere Surface using
Transverse Electric/Transverse Magnetic Whispering Gallery Modes”, Bio. Phys. J., 92, 4466-4472 (2007).
  • I. Teraoka, and S. Arnold, “Coupled whispering gallery modes in a multilayer-coated microsphere”, Opt. Lett. 32, 1147-1149 (2007).
  • I. Teraoka, and S. Arnold, “Whispering-gallery modes in a microsphere coated with a high-refractive index layer:
polarization-dependent sensitivity enhancement of the resonance-shift sensor and TE–TM resonance matching”,
 J. Opt. Soc. Am. B, 24, 653 (2007).
  • I. Teraoka, and S. Arnold, “Dielectric property of particles at interface in random sequential adsorption and its application to whispering gallery mode resonance-shift sensors”, J. of Appl. Phys. 101, 023505 (2007).
  • O. Gaathon, J. Culic-Viskota, M. Mihnev, I. Teraoka and S. Arnold, “Enhancing sensitivity of a whispering gallery mode biosensor by subwavelength confinement”, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 223901 (2006).
  • G. Guan, S. Arnold and M. V. Otugen, “Temperature measurements using a microoptical sensor based on whispering gallery modes”, AIAA JOURNAL, Vol. 44, 2385 (2006).
  • I. Teraoka and S. Arnold, “Enhancing the sensitivity of a whispering-gallery mode microsphere sensor by a high-refractive-index surface layer”, J. Opt. Soc. Am.B, 23, 1434 (2006).
  • I. Teraoka and S. Arnold, “Theory of resonance shifts in TE and TM whispering gallery modes by nonradial perturbations for sensing applications”, J. Opt. Soc. Am.B, 23, 1381 (2006).
  • M. Noto, M. Khoshsima, D. Keng, I. Teraoka, V. Kolchenko, and S. Arnold, “Molecular weight dependence of a whispering gallery mode biosensor”,
 Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 223901 (2005).
  • M. Noto, F. Vollmer, D. Keng, I. Teraoka, S. Arnold, “Nanolayer characterization through wavelength multiplexing
of a microsphere resonator”,
 Opt. Lett. 30, No. 5 (2005).
  • J. Aber, S. Arnold, B. Garetz, “Strong dc Electric Field Applied to Supersaturated Aqueous 
Glycine Solution Induces Nucleation of the gamma Polymorph”, Physical Review Letters 94,145503 (2005).
  • F. Vollmer, S. Arnold, D. Braun, I. Teraoka, A. Libchaber, “Multiplexed DNA Quantification by Spectroscopic Shift of Two Microsphere Cavities” Bio. Phys. J., 85, 1974-1979, (2003).
  • I. Teraoka, S. Arnold, F. Vollmer, “Perturbation Approach to Resonance Shift of Whispering Gallery Modes
in Dielectric Microspheres as a Probe of a Surrounding Medium”, J. Opt. Soc. B 20, 1937-1946 (2003).
  • S. Arnold, M. Khoshsima, I. Teraoka, S. Holler, F. Vollmer, “Shift of Whispering Gallery Modes in Microspheres by Protein Adsorption”, Opt. Lett. 28, 272-274 (2003).


General/Collaborative Research



  • Optical Biosensors with I. Teraoka (CBS)
  • Light Induced Nucleation with B. Garetz (CBS)
  • Nano-particle Transport in Fluids by Photons with W. Zurawsky (CBE)
  • Micro-sensors with V.T. Otugen (ME)
  • Micro-Photonics with G. Griffel (ECE)
  • MicroParticle Enhanced Energy Transfer with L.M. Folan (Physics)







  • American Physical Society (Fellow)
  • Optical Society of America (Fellow)
  • Tau Beta Pi





  • Fellow-American Physical Society (1990-present)
  • Fellow-Optical Society of America (1988-present)
  • Fellow-Alfred P. Sloan Foundation (1981)
  • Visiting Scholar, Harvard (Spring, 2013)
  • John J. Turin Award for Outstanding Career Accomplishments in Physics, University of Toledo(2000),
  • Visiting Scholar University of Tokyo (Spring, 1997)
  • Outstanding Publication Award, Oak Ridge National Lab (1994)
  • Sigma Xi Award for Distinguished Scientific Research (1986)
  • Chevron Distinguished Visiting Prof. California Institute of Technology (Spring, 1985)



  • Othmer-Potts Senior Faculty Fellow (2001-Present)
  • University Professor (1996-Present)
  • Thomas Potts Professor of Physics (1985-Present)



System and Method for sizing nano-particles realtime, (Utility)

No. 9,709,476 Issued-July 18, 2017, Filed- Sept. 18, 2014

Plasmonic Enhancement of a WGM Biosensor, (Utility)

Issued- June 23, 2013, Filed August 9, 2011

Functionalizing a Sensing Ribbon on WGM with Light, (Utility)

No. 8,642,111 Issued-Feb 4, 2014, Filed May 19, 2010

Syringe-based Whispering Gallery Mode Micro-resonator Biochem Sen, (Utility)

Description: No. 8,886,270 Issued Nov.11, 2014, Filed-April 20, 2011

Detecting and/or Measuring Substance based on Resonance Shifts..., (Utility)

No. 7,491,491 Issued-February 17, 2009, Filed- Mar 12, 2002

Research Centers, Labs, and Groups